Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 2nd International Conference on Livestock Nutrition Brisbane, Australia.

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Bob Orskov

International Feed Resources Unit, United Kingdom

Keynote: Feed resource management

Time : 10:35-11:00

OMICS International Livestock Nutrition 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Bob Orskov photo
Biography:

Professor Ørskov has worked with many international organisations including FAO, IAEA, DFID EU and ILRI in project identification and evaluation in the area of feed resource management and rural development with emphasis on livestock nutrition. He worked for many years at the Rowett Research Institute in Aberdeen and more recently in the James Hutton Institute Aberdeen.The International Feed Resource laboratory provided appropriate training to support the projects. . He has worked in many countries in Asia, including Indonesia, Mongolia, China, India, Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Syria, Iran and Turkey. In Africa including Egypt, Tunisia,Cameroon Zimbabwe, Zambia, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria and Ghana, in South America including Cuba, Peru, Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil and Chile and also in Eastern Europe including Poland, Czeck Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. He has published 5 books and author or co-author of over 600 scientific papers and popular articles on nutrition and feed resource management.

Abstract:

Project identification and evaluation in the area of feed resource management and rural development with emphasis on livestock nutrition

Keynote Forum

Edir N. Silva

World Poultry Science Association, Brazil

Keynote: New advances on feed additives (probiotics and prebiotics) to replace antibiotics as growth promoters

Time : 09:05-09:30

OMICS International Livestock Nutrition 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Edir N. Silva photo
Biography:

Edir completed his PhD in 1978 from State University of Sao Paulo (USP), Brazil. Postdoctoral studies from University of Massachusetts, USA. Lectured on ,diseases of poultry food hygiene and safety on poultry products. Retired as full professor. He has published more than 50 papers in reputed journals. Founder in 1981 of the Brazilian Poultry Science and Technology Foundation - FACTA (www.facta.org.br), a nonprofit association, that organizes an Annual Poultry Conference, training courses, seminars, has published several technical teaching books, and a Brazilian Poultry Science Journal. Since that time he has been on the Facta's executive committee. FACTA hosted the World Poultry Congress in 2012, and he became the President of the World's Poultry Science Association (2012-16). As an entrepreneur he established a poultry vaccine company, a poultry diagnostic laboratory, and a Probiotic/Prebiotic company.

Abstract:

For many decades Antibiotic Growth Promoters (AGP) have been traditionally used worldwide in sub-therapeutic levels to counter microbial infections in poultry, improving their performance. But due to public health concern on the overall increase in antimicrobial resistance, the use of AGP is either restricted or out rightly banned in several countries. Thus, alternatives to AGP have been searched and developed. Among the candidates for replacement, Probiotics and Prebiotics have the most widespread acceptance at this time. Probiotics are mono or mixed cultures of live microorganisms, which include beneficial effect on the host by improving the properties of the indigenous microflora in the gut. Killed bacteria cultures as well as bacterial metabolites have been included in the definition. Prebiotics are generally defined as non-digestible polysaccharides and oligosaccharides that can positively affect the animal organism by stimulating the activity and growth of beneficial native bacteria in the gastrointestinal rntract and eliminate the pathogenic ones. Thus, serve as substrate for beneficial bacteria. Lactose, mannanoligosaccharide (MOS), fructooligosaccharides (FOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS), yeast cell wall parts are the most recognized Prebiotics for poultry. Their beneficial effects are enhanced when Prebiotics are used simultaneously with Probiotics in the form of Symbiotics. Significant variability still exists in their effectiveness. This presentation will review the use of Probiotics and Prebiotics as AGP alternatives, the potential mechanism of their action, and discuss some recent data on the effects of these supplements in poultry nutrition.rn

  • Track 1: Livestock Track 2: Livestock Nutrition Track 3: Livestock Disease and Management Track 6: Sheep
Speaker
Biography:

Abd Al-Bar Al-Farha has completed his Bachelore and Master degree in veterinary science from The University of Mosul and he is currently a PhD student at The University of Adelaide, School of Animal and Veterinary Science, South Australia. He is a lecturer at The North Technical college in Iraq. He has two published paper.

Abstract:

The elevation of somatic cell counts SCC in affected quarters reflects the possibility of infection and is the standard method to discriminate between healthy and mastitis-infected cows. A total of 368 milk samples at cow level were collected from a single dairy farm located near Mount Gambier, South Australia. The farm had a history of chronic mastitis with poor response to antimicrobials and an increasing number of cows with high SCC. Most cows appeared clinically normal at the time of sample collection. A conventional microscopic culture method was used to detect Mycoplasma spp. Individual cow yield production parameters (e.g. volume, fat and protein percentage) and SCC for sampled and non-sampled cows was obtained by means of herd testing information. The effect of mastitis (Mycoplasma spp or undifferentiated was compared to the rest of the herd (assumed to be without mastitis) using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The SCC showed significant difference between sampled cows and the remainder of the herd. However, no significant difference was observed between cows with Mycoplasma spp. caused or undifferentiated mastitis. Milk production was significantly affected being 33.5±0.2 and 29.9±0.5 L/cow/day in cows with mastitis and the rest of the herd. The non-significant difference observed between Mycoplasma spp. induced mastitis and undifferentiated mastitis in this study, likely reflected the similarity in the influence of these pathogens on SCC. Correspondingly, milk yield was similarly affected by Mycoplasma spp.-like bacteria and undifferentiated pathogens. These findings point the importance of the detection of these bacteria amongst other common mastitis pathogens.

Speaker
Biography:

Mark completed his PhD at the University of New England in ruminant physiology and nutrition investigating the impact of digestive physiology on methane production and nutrient utilisation in sheep. He then undertook a senior research fellowship assessing the effectiveness of a novel biological compound, designed to regulate key gut kinetic regulators, in mitigating methane production and improving nutrient uptake from ruminants. Mark has since developed a new technique for determining faecal concentrations of non-absorbable digesta kinetic and digestibility markers in sheep and cattle.Currently he is the Lecturer of Animal Nutrition at Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga.

Abstract:

How is that two identical animals can eat the same diet yet have different production outcomes? Much of the answer lies in the animal’s digestive physiology – its ability and mechanisms to digest, absorb and metabolise the diet consumed. Digestion, absorption and the motility of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are all controlled by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms designed to obtain the maximum nutritional benefit from the diet consumed. Some of these neurocrine and endocrine mechanisms are regulated from secondary tissues like the liver, pancrease and hypothalamus. Many more though are locally controlled through autocrine and paracrine secretions, focusing directly on the functioning of the GIT. It has long been known that dietary regulation and supplementation is capable of manipulating the regulation of the digestive physiology in livestock. The addition and extraction of key components of an animal’s diet can have a profound effect on its ability to digest and absorb nutrients, impacting greatly on the animal’s production performance. The purpose of this review is to investigate the neurocrine and endocrine regulators of digestive physiologyand how they can be influenced by dietary manipulation to provide a greater production outcome.

Silvia Denise Peña Betancourt

Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Xochimilco, Mexico

Title: The Mycotoxins contamination in corn silage from dairy farms in Mexico
Speaker
Biography:

Silvia Denise Peña Betancourt, is Veterinarian, Master of Science by UNAM-FMVZ, Toxicology Specialist Clinic for faculty Medicine Alexis Carrel and Docteur by the Pharmaceutical science Faculty by Claude Bernard University. She works as a research professor at UAM-X, since 1991 to date. Toxicology laboratory responsible at department of Agricultural and Animal Production in UAM-X. She has written more than 30 research papers in National and International journals, is member of National Council of Animal Health, and has published books and chapter books in toxicology.

Abstract:

Corn silage is the main forage available in the whole dairy cattle rations around the world; which can undergo a deterioration by the presence of fungi mainly Aspergillussp, Penicilliumsp and Fusarium sp. and their mycotoxins, with the loss of their nutritional value, commitment in health and animal production and public health. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of three mycotoxins in corn silage from three dairy farms located in Central region in Mexico. A total of twelve samples of corn silage, were collected. It was made a sampling at three levels of trench silo, upper, middle and edge was performed in duplicate. It was determined the physical forage quality using the particle size and pH parameters. Mycotoxins multiple technique by Aflatoxins, OcratoxinA(OA) and Zearalenone (ZEA) was used in thin layer (TLC) to determine the presence of mycotoxins. The physical quality results showed variations in dry matter content, with a lost half 15.78%, particle size upper to 5 cm, and pH in a range of 5.2-5.9. The pH founded it was ideal for the synthesis of mycotoxins, it was detected the simultaneous presence of type B aflatoxins (AFB1) and G (Aflatoxin G1), OA and ZEA in the upper layer and edge of the horizontal silo (trench silo). It is concluded that corn silage from two farms don´t fulfill the physical quality and that all contain multiple mycotoxins. It is recommended to monitor the toxicological quality corn silage prior to administration to cattle.

Speaker
Biography:

BukolaBabatunde completed her PhD degree in Poultry Nutrition in 1999 from University of Ibadan, Nigeria and another PhD in Animal Nutrition and Immunity in 2009 from La Trobe University Australia. She worked at Institute of Agricultural Research & Training, ObafemiAwolowo University, Moor PlantationasResearch Fellow in pig improvement programmes and as SeniorLecturer in Animal Science at Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology, Institute of Agricultural Research & Training.She is currentlyAssociate Professor and Head of Department of Animal Husbandryat Fiji National University.She has published more than 40 papers in reputed journals and she is a member of editorial and review board of reputable international journal.

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to investigate nutritional value of root and tuber crops as livestock feed resources. Fresh unpeeled Irish potatoes (P), sweet potatoes (SP), cassava (CA), yam (YA) and dalo (DL) purchased from the market were washed and cut into smaller pieces. The cut pieces were sub-divided into three equal parts. One part was analysed as fresh samples, while remaining parts was sundried (SU) and ovendried. The ovendried and sundried samples were milled into meal using an electric grinder. Fresh, ovendried and sundried samples were analysed for moisture, ash, crude protein, fat, crude fibre and soluble carbohydrate fractions. The experiment was designed as 5 x 3 factorial experiment and data expressed on as fed basis. Fresh root and tuber crops has comparative low DM contents (DL > YM > CS > SP > P) compared to those processed by sundrying and oven drying. Generally, the results showed that the two processing methods enhance (P < 0.05) nutritive value of root and tuber crops compared to fresh samples. Sun drying is more effective (P < 0.05) in raising NFE contents of root and tuber crops than oven drying. There were significant differences (P > 0.05) in DM between different root and tuber crops processed by two methods, although both processing methods have no effect on potato DM content. However, oven drying improved (P < 0.05) DM of SP, YM and DL, while sun drying improved (P < 0.05) DM content of cassava only. The protein contents of root and tuber crops were enhanced (P < 0.05) when processed but there were no significantly differences (P > 0.05) between protein contents of sundried and oven dried root and tuber crops. Sun drying improves (P < 0.05) crude fibre of root and tuber crop samples than oven drying.

Speaker
Biography:

Fon is a PhD (ruminant Nutrition) graduate from the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), South Africa and currently working as a lecturer at the University of Zululand (UZ) after serving two years a Post doctorate Researcher at UNIZULU and UZ. I am a member of the South African Society of Animal Science, Golden Key International Honour Society and EAAP. My researched is focused on improving forage digestion in ruminants especially with potential fibrolytic microbes from wild herbivores. We have succeeded in identifying some microbial ecosystems of higher fibrolytic potential that may possibly improve digestion in domesticated ruminant.

Abstract:

Acacia species are often recommended as a protein supplement during the long try season or winter because they are often available and maintain their protein content throughout the year. However, acacia species or browses are often limited by their high tannin concentrations which are also detrimental to fibrolytic microbes hence decrease in digestibility especially in domesticated goats. Therefore this study evaluated the effect of in vitro inocula from wild herbivores (impala, kudu and giraffe) on in vitro fermentation, gas production and cellulases activities of domestic goats. Consortia were created by mixing faecal inoculum from impala, giraffe and kudu with that of goat (N1 (goat + impala, 1:1), N2 (goat + kudu, 1:1), N3 (goat + giraffe+ kudu, 1:1:1) and N4 (goat + giraffe + kudu + impala, 1:1:1:1)). Crude protein enzyme extracts (CPZ) from fresh faecal samples were precipitated by 60% ammonium sulphate and assayed for exocellulase, endocellulase and hemicellulase activities by incubating with crystalline cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose and xylan at 38℃ with optimum pH of 5.5 to 6.5 for 1, 2, and 48 h, respectively. In vitro degradability was carried out by transferring 33 ml of faecal inoculum into 67 ml salivary buffer containing 1 g of acacia sieberiana and 10% tannin (substrate 6.2% was made up to 10% by adding 100μL containing 3.8 mg tannic acid) before incubating for 72 h at 38℃. Apparent degradability (APD), true degradability (TD), neutral detergent fibre digestibility (NDFdeg), acid detergent fibre digestibility (ADFdeg), cellulose digestibility (CELLdeg), hemicellulose digestibility (HEMdeg) and MY were calculated. Manipulation of goat enzyme activities with enzymes from the wild had a positive (P<0.05) influence on goat fibre degradability. Xylanase and endocellulase activities were highest (P<0.05) in N1 while N4 showed the highest exocellulase activity. Microbial ecosystem N3 had the highest (P<0.05) TD, NDFdeg and ADFdeg while N1 showed the highest degradability for hemicellulose and cellulose. Microbial yield also varied among the microbial ecosystems but was highest for N2, goat and N4. It was concluded that microbial activities from wild herbivores might have introduced new microbes that were able to survive on goat ecosystem and improve its fibrolytic potentialin vitro. These results showed that microbial ecosystem from wild herbivores have a potential to improve browse utilization in domestic goat.

Speaker
Biography:

DALMEIDA LUCAS is a lecturer in the department of Agricultural Education, Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Otto/Ijaninikin, Lagos State, Nigeria. He has Master Degree in Fishieries and Aquatic Biology and currently pursuing is PhD in the same field in Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria.

Abstract:

A feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of cassava flour as an alternative source of energy in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. A total of 300 fingerlings of average weight 3.01g were randomly distributed into five treatments, each treatment had three replicates. Twenty fingerlings were distributed into each bucket of 50 liters, which was filled with 40 liters of water. Five diets containing 35% crude protein were formulated in which maize was replaced with cassava flour meal at different level: Diet 1 (100% cassava), Diet 2 (75% cassava), Diet 3 (50% cassava), Diet 4 (25% cassava) and Diet 5 (0% cassava) which serves as the control diet. They were fed at 5% body weight per day for 10weeks. The results showed that cassava flour was suitable as an alternative source of energy in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Diet 3 (50% cassava) has the highest mean followed by Diet 4 (25% cassava), Diet 5 (0% cassava), Diet 2 (75% cassava) and Diet 1 (100% cassava) respectively. There were no significant differences. (P>0.05) in the growth response of Clarias gariepinus. It is therefore concluded that cassava flour is a cheap source of non-conventional energy source which could be successfully used to replace maize (50% inclusion levels) as an energy source in the diets of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings.

Speaker
Biography:

Marefa Jahan is a PhD student in School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2650, Australia. She is in final year of her PhD and is working for better health and nutrition of the livestock.

Abstract:

Sialic acids (Sia), a family of 9-carbon acidic sugar molecules, are key monosaccharide units of brain gangliosides and glycoproteins and a major component of sialylated glycotope in human milk. Human milk Sia has been proposed as a bioactive compound promoting immune function, gut maturation and neurodevelopment of the newborn. Porcine milk however, has received little attention. The aims of the present study were to quantify and compare the levels of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), N- glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and ketodeoxynonulpsonic acid (KDN) in oligosaccharide, glycoprotein and glycolipid in sow milk during course of lactation. Milk samples from 22 sows were collected by manual expression on 3 occasions, day 1 (colostrum), day 3 (transition milk) and day 15-21 (mature milk) respectively. The concentration of Neu5Ac, Neu5Gc and KDN were analyzed using UHPLC. The results showed that sow milk contained significant amounts of Sia with the highest concentration found in colostrum (1238.50 mg/L) followed by transition milk (778.32 mg/L) and then mature milk (347.21 mg/L). Most of the Sia in sow milk was conjugated to glycoproteins (41-46%), free oligosaccharides (31-42%) and then glycolipid (12-28%) throughout the course of lactation. Neu5Ac was the major form of Sia (93-96%) and then Neu5Gc (3-6%), KDN however contained as little as 1-2%. This distribution was common to each milk fraction and to each time point in lactation. In conclusion, porcine milk contains a rich source of sialylated glycan in the forms of glycoproteins, free oligosaccharides and glycolipids. The high concentrations of Sia in porcine milk suggest that Sia is an important nutrient that may contribute to the optimization of immune function, neurodevelopment and growth and development of piglets.

Speaker
Biography:

Prof.A.K.Thiruvenkadan completed his PhD in Animal Genetics and Breeding at the age of 40 years from Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India and actively involved in teaching and research in the field of Animal Production. He is the Professor and Head of Mecheri Sheep Research Station, Pottaneri, Tamil Nadu, India (afflicted to Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai) and involved in research activities related to animal nutrition and animal genetics. He presented several invited papers in the national and international conferences and has published more than 75 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of scientific journals.

Abstract:

Nutrition and health are closely linked, but despite decades of study, the intricate interactions between diet and many aspects of human and animal health is poorly understood. The advent of high-throughput technologies to study an animal's genome, proteome, and metabolome constituted a setback to the use of reductionism in livestock research. More recent development of "next-generation sequencing" tools was instrumental in allowing in-depth studies of the microbiome in the rumen and other sections of the gastrointestinal tract. Omics, along with bioinformatics, constitutes the foundation of modern systems biology to enhance understanding of the complex biological interactions occurring within cells and tissues at the gene, protein, and metabolite level. Genomic revolution has propelled the development of several new technologies that can be applied in nutritional sciences. Molecular nutrition in terms of nutrigenomics will serve as a new tool for nutritional research in mitigating the problems related to animal health and production. The innovations in nutrition research with use of various molecular technologies will indubitably update our basic understanding of nutrient gene interrelationship and help to define new methods for managing animal production. Finally by targeting the specific gene through nutritional manipulation, it may be possible to get the desired livestock performance in terms of health as well as production. I present examples of new knowledge generated through the application of functional analyses of transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data sets encompassing nutritional management of dairy cows, pigs, and poultry. Published work to date underscores that the integrative approach across and within tissues may prove useful for fine-tuning nutritional management of livestock. An important goal during this process is to uncover key molecular players involved in the organismal adaptations to nutrition.

Speaker
Biography:

Currently, undertaking PhD at Charles Sturt University to develop village-based forage seed enterprises for the smallholder farmers of Pakistan in collaboration with ACIAR and ICARDA. Prominent in leading a forage “think tank” meeting in Pakistan to establish forage research priorities. Also working as Research Assistant in a Meat and Livestock Australia project, on developing an understanding of the photosensitisation in sheep caused by Biserrula. Worked with the Pakistan Dairy Development Company as Regional Manager (2011), and established model farms at the village level which then used to educate the farming communities. Worked with Uardry Merino stud (2010) and with the farming communities of Australia to develop my skills in precision agriculture, dairy, sheep and beef enterprises. Also completed a post-graduate certificate from CSU. Worked with DairyNZ (2009) and learned about management techniques and develop farm management strategies.

Abstract:

A field study was conducted with smallholder dairy farmers of Kasur and Okara districts of Punjab, Pakistan during winter season 2012-2014 to determine the effects of using improved variety seed against conventional seeds on forage quality, dry matter (DM) and seed yields of annual Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.). Farmer participatory research approach was used for on-farm varietal selection and evaluation. Seed rate of 20kg/ha was broadcasted in standing water as farmer’s standard sowing method, while all the other agronomic practices were kept constant except harvesting time across all sites. Three different seed sources of Berseem clover were used for this purpose; comprised of farmer own-saved seed (FS), market seed (MS) and the research station seed (RS). Two forage cuts were taken from each treatment plot after 65 and 110 days after sowing (DAS) and the subsequent forage cuts then left to flower after 110, 150, 180 and 210 DAS for seed production as Treatment one (T1), Treatment two (T2), Treatment three (T3) and Treatment four (T4), respectively. Harvesting time of 150 DAS (T2) with three forage cuts produced excellent forage and seed yields per hectare of all seed sources across all research sites. The research station seed at all research sites produced significantly higher yields of DM (6.59 t/ha) and seed (420 kg/ha) under the agro-climatic conditions of Kasur and Okara districts. Moreover, improved variety seed produced high quality forage having crude protein (26.8%), dry matter digestibility (68.3%) and metabolisable energy (14.1%). The study demonstrates that small-holder farmers can earn significant net income of PKR. 221, 688 Rs/ha (3,079A$/ha) from commercial forage seed production provided that the germplasm is of high quality.

Speaker
Biography:

Shouqun Jianghas completed her PhDfrom Zhejiang University and visiting scholar from Iowa State University School of Life and Animal Science. She is theleader of chicken nutrition research team, Institute of Animal Science, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, P.R.China. She has published more than 15papers of broilernutritionin reputed journals.

Abstract:

The effects of dietary threonine (Thr)levels on performance, offspring traits,embryo protein deposition in broiler breeder hens was investigated. A total of 720Lingnan yellow-feathered broiler breeder hens were randomly divided into 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 6 replicates per treatment (20 birds per replicate). The hens were fed either the basal diet (Thr 0.38%) or the basal diet supplemented with 0.00%, 0.12%, 0.24%, 0.36%, 0.48% and 0.60% Thrfrom 29w to 38w. The results showed that Thrsupplementation produced quadratic positive responses in laying rate. Hatchability was higher in breeders fed 0.12% and 0.24%Thr than those of control birds (P<0.05). Dietary supplemental Thr had significant effects on expressions of mucin 2 (MUC2) in duodenum, colon and uterus, and ZO-1 in duodenum of hens (P<0.05). In chick embryo at embryonic age 18, there were significant upregulations of dietary Thr levels onthe transcripts of liver and breast musclepoultry target of rapamycin, thigh threonine dehydrogenase, duodenum and ileumaminopepridase (P<0.05), but no effects on MUC2expression of duodenum and ileum (P>0.05).Chick livability and serum uric acid nitrogen concentration were increased,and liver glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activity was decreased by dietary Thrsupplementation (P<0.05).It concludedthat there were positive effects of addingThr on laying production of breeder hens and offspring performance, and this was associated with the regulations of gene expressions related to amino acid transportation and protein desposition. The optimal dietary Thrsupplemental level was 0.298% or 0.388 g/d for broiler breeders.

Speaker
Biography:

Born in Cuba (1959). Graduated as a Zootecnician Engineer from the Central University of Las Villas (1989). Specialist in Ruminant Nutrition and Management by the Institute of Animal Science of Havana (1992). Bachelor of Science in Tropical Agriculture from the "Larenstein" International Agricultural College, the Netherlands. Ph.D. in Veterinary Sciences (2000). Training in Agricultural Research for Development by ICRA-Wageningen, the Netherlands (2003). Professor & Researcher at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences. Expert in Agroforestry, Rural Development, Environmental Management Systems and Project Formulation, with more than 20 years’ teaching experience in Animal Production Systems, Animal Nutrition and Feeding, Agroforestry.

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the potentialities of Agroforestry for a sustainable livestock production, with emphasis on those modalities where tree resources provide goods and services, whether in woodlands or off-forest (trees outside forest) agroecosystems, under Cuban conditions. Findings come from on-farm research conducted by several Cuban institutions and carried out in different degraded agroecosystems (state-owned and –managed farms) devoted to milk, beef and timber production. Silvopastoral systems in grass-legume associations, legume protein banks and forest/fruit plantations together with alley cropping for forage production have been the most studied. All these agroforestry alternatives have in common: (i) not use of irrigation and chemical fertilizers, (ii) grazing with different number of paddocks and stocking rate, and (iii) the use local genotypes of small and large ruminants. Agroforestry has immense potential to support animal feeding and productivity. Many are long-term research results and many more are local experiences that have been developed for over 30 years, not only in Cuba but also en Africa, South Asia and Latin America. Unfortunately, their spread has not been satisfactory and, consequently, the potential of Agroforestry has not been effectively exploited. Agroforestry systems exemplify major opportunities for productivity enhancement, especially with ruminant livestock. The nature of livestock trees interactions is variable and the benefits of the positive effects are not yet recognized by farmers, technician, extension workers and policy makers. However, Agroforestry constitute a viable alternative to achieve sustainable livestock production.