Sukhan Jung is a Researcher of Veterinary Medicine at Chonbuk National University, South Korea. She has graduated from the Veterinary Science Graduate School of Chonnam National University and recently been participating in research related to health care and disease prevention of large animals
The fecal appearance of calves is an important direct/indirect diagnostic indicator for the occurrence of enteritis. In order to understand the relationship between pathogen infection rate and fecal appearance, fecal scoring and infection with specific pathogens of parasites and viral infection were analyzed. Fecal scoring was determined by subjective observation in 115 farm calves aged 1-90 days: solid, semi-solid, loose and watery. And then fecal pathogens (Coronavirus, Rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, E. coli K99+) were detected by 5-type pathogen diagnosis kit and multiple RT-PCR tests. Also, Eimeria was detected by microscopic observation. The association between fecal appearance and pathogen was analyzed by logistic regression model or chi-square test using SPSS. Among the total of 115 calves, 35 were solid fecal type, 38 semi-solid fecal type, 32 loose fecal type and 10 watery type. Pathogen infection rate is positively associated with more liquid fecal type. However, there was no difference in pathogen infection rate between solid and semi-solid type (P>0.05). Based on the results, a fecal score of 2 or more (loose and watery feces) was judged as diarrhea. The diarrhea group had 12 times higher probability of being infected (P=0.00) compared to the normal group. Rotavirus, Coronavirus and Cryptosporidium were closely associated with diarrhea severity (P<0.05). The research confirmed the relationship between fecal scoring and infection rate in calf diarrhea. Infection was associated with more liquid fecal type. Especially, BCV, BRV and Cryptosporidium are involved in change to liquid feces. This research could be an important indicator for better appropriate treatment of calf diarrhea and for providing information of calf diarrhea with clinical symptoms and pathogen infection
Maria Chrenkova is a Scientist with 36 years of experience in ruminant nutrition and feeds evaluation. Her research works are focused on feed quality, parameters of ruminal degradability, intestinal digestibility and biological value of proteins using model animals (rats and rabbits). She also studies the use of genetically modified and non-traditional feeds in animal nutrition and their effects on animal health and quality of animal products. She is involved in several national and international projects related to feed quality, animal nutrition, metabolism and production
The importance of grain legumes in the world is high due to their significance in human and animal nutrition. Peas are substantial source of nitrogen and energy, which can compete with many other feeds for selected nutrients. Energy content is comparative with barley and corn. The amino acid composition is characterized by a high lysine and arginine content and low methionine, cysteine and tryptophan content. Lower nutritive value of legume seeds has been attributed to the presence of anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, condensed tannins, lectins, etc. Some industrial processes using heat treatment can improve the nutritional properties of legumes. Peas, like other legume seeds, are characterized also by their highly degradable protein and slowly degradable starch. The heat-based processing treatments, extrusion and expansion, increased the insoluble protein fraction and reduced the amount of the protein being degraded into the rumen with no changes to in vitro digestibility. The objective of this study was to determine nutritive value and effective degradability of crude protein and starch and digestibility of crude protein in untreated and extruded peas by method in sacco and mobile bag.