Day 1 :
Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia
Keynote: Detection of the genotype and biotype variations of bovine viral diarrhea virus from persistently infected dairy cattle in Java, Indonesia
Time : 9:30-10:05
Hastari Wuryastuti is a Professor in the Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Gadjah Mada University in Indonesia. She has completed her graduation from Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in 1979 and Masters and Doctor of Philosophy in 1987 and 1989 from Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Michigan State University in USA
Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is one of important pathogen and costly diseases on dairy farm worldwide. A wide range of clinical manifestations from subclinical to fatal disease occur in association with BVDV infections. The reproductive consequences of BVDV infections range from conception failure, early embryonic death, abortions, stillbirth, congenital malformations, stunted weak calves and the birth of persistently infected (PI) calf (calves). Persistently infected calves are immune-tolerant and serving as BVDV carrier for their entire lives which continuously transmit the disease by direct contact to susceptible and unvaccinated herd mates. In the early genetic characterization, two genotypes of BVDV (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2) and two biotypes of BVDV (cytopathic and non-cytopathic) are recognized in most countries. The characterization of genotypes and biotypes from a particular region can contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of BVDV infections. The objective of this study is to determine the genotype and biotype of BVDV variability from PI dairy cattle in Java, Indonesia. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) positive samples were used in this study. Through phylogenetic and nucleotide sequence analysis of the 5’-Untranslated Region (5’UTR) of the samples investigated, it was determined that all the 15 field positive samples had the BVDV-1 genotype. Two IP-BVDV positive samples (805_FR and 5096_FR) sharing highest similarity (99% homology) with sub-genotype BVDV-1a KP941584 isolates which are currently circulating in Kansas, USA. Using immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) the biotype of all the samples were identified as non-cytopathic-BVDV.
Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia
Time : 10:05-10:40
Raden Wasito is a Professor of Veterinary Pathology at Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia. He is currently a Staff Member at Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Gadjah Mada University. He has received his DVM degree from Gadjah Mada University in 1978 and pursued his Advanced Degrees in Pathology at Department of Pathology, Michigan State University, USA and obtained MS in 1984 and PhD in 1987.
Avian influenza virus (AIV) is a zoonotic that can infect chickens and humans as a global public health threat. In the field, in general, AIV strains are harmless to human health. Nevertheless, several AIV strains, such as H5 and H7 subtypes, have been found to possess the ability to cross-link the host (genetic shift or genetic re-assortment) and are able to infect humans in case of direct contact with infected chickens or through contaminated environments. The incidence of AIV outbreaks is unpredictable and it only takes a week to infect chickens in many countries around the world. Chickens can be infected with hidden AIV, meaning that chickens is capable of transmitting AIV infection without showing clinical symptoms of sick or normal looking chickens (healthy). Java is noted as the region in Indonesia with the highest number of AIV cases in chickens and presumably a consistent main site as a source of AIV outbreaks in chickens. AIV subtype H5N1 has been successfully isolated from house flies (Musca domestica). AIV H5N1 subtype persists and lives in the digestive tract of the house fly up to 24 hours post-infection. In fact, it was reported that there has been a mixed infection of AIV type A highly pathogenic subtype H5 and H7 in chickens in Indonesia. Currently, AIV infection in chickens in Indonesia is non-pathogenic. The non-pathogenic AIV is, in general, co-infected with other microorganisms, especially Escherichia coli, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus and infectious bursal disease virus, and mycotic infections. AIV bio-surveillance in chickens is an essential part in order to identify new strains of AIV that are likely to cause epidemics and even AIV pandemics in both chickens and humans. More importantly, in addition to the anti-flies chemicals and vaccinations, are the creation of novel medicine in nature that allows it to act as a treatment (triggering T cell activity) and at the same time could prevent AIV (resulting in AIV receptors: sialic acid) and can also act as anti-bacterial G+ and G- and anti-toxin.